Cancer of the vulva: photos, symptoms, stages, treatment methods, predictions, reviews
What is this pathology?Is it dangerous and curable? These are frequent questions. We will discuss them in detail in this article. Cancer of the vulva is a malignant tumor that occurs outside on the skin and mucous of the genitals. Every year, experts identify more than four thousand patients who are ill with this pathology. The onset of death in the course of the year, even despite the assistance provided, is observed in every fifth patient. Such a high mortality is associated with the fact that patients do not go to specialists for a long time. The consequences of this attitude to health, unfortunately, are disappointing. As a result, the indifference of people leads to the fact that initially the operable form of the disease is incurable.
The incidence of cancer of the vulva in our countryis approximately five percent. Epidemiology demonstrates that the prevalence of disease in developing countries is higher than in the rest of the world. As for Asians, their incidence rate does not exceed one and a half percent.
In the risk group are often elderly people,which are older than sixty-five years, since it is at this age that the hormonal background in women undergoes significant changes. Squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva can rarely develop in adolescents or fertile women. If we take into account the age of the patients, we can make the assumption that malignancy appears against the background of degenerative degeneration caused by aging. For various reasons, older people turn to gynecologists much less often, which leads to the neglect of pathology.
For surrounding people, vulvar cancer (photo withthe image of the affected areas are presented in the article) is not contagious. It is not possible to infect it with an airborne method, but there are some infectious pathologies that contribute to its formation, for example, human papillomavirus or AIDS.
Types of Cancer
The following varieties of vulvar cancer are distinguished,which are based on its histological structure, and in addition, the direction of growth and other features. Thus, the cytological picture allows us to distinguish the following types of this disease:
- Squamous cell form.
- Basal cell variety.
- The presence of melanoma.
- Development of Paget's disease.
- Appearance of adenocarcinoma.
- The appearance of Bartholin gland carcinoma.
Squamous cell carcinoma is abouteighty percent of all cases, and other species are much less common. By the criterion of the orientation of the germination of pathology, the exophytic and endophytic forms differ. The international classification shows the prevalence of this process, and it takes into account:
- The size of the primary tumor.
- Degree of involvement of lymph nodes.
- The presence of metastases.
Symptomatology and signs of pathology
In the early stages of vulvar cancer,patients may be absent altogether. Sometimes precursors of the development of such a pathology is leukoplakia along with kraurosis and sclerosing deprivation. Often the first stage of the disease has an asymptomatic character.
The initial symptom of vulvar cancer issensation of itching with discomfort or burning in the genital tract. Painful sensations, as a rule, appear later. Externally, the first changes without a survey can be difficult to detect, but sometimes you can see that in the inguinal region there was a lump in the form of an enlarged lymph node, which does not hurt.
The primary visible manifestations are spotson mucous, to find out which it is simple: thus it is enough simply simply to examine vulva. Unfortunately, it's too late. Such spots have a whitish-gray hue. A similar symptomatology is observed against the background of leukoplakia.
Characteristic signs of cancer of the vulva atExophytic growth is the appearance of inflammation, ulceration, and in addition, purulent, bloody discharge, which indicates that the disintegration of the cancerous tumor began. Endophytic sprouting is characterized by swelling along with seals and infiltration. To later manifestations include weakness, fatigue and low temperature. At the terminal stage, the symptoms progress rapidly, which is usually expressed by severe exhaustion. There may also be rapid weight loss and low-grade pulses with shortness of breath at the slightest load. As a result, death most often occurs.
You can see the symptoms of vulvar cancer in the photos presented in the article.
Etiology with the main causesthis pathology to the end to date has not yet been studied. However, fifty percent of patients on the body have papillomatosis. Its causative agent is the virus of the papilloma. It can be transmitted by contact or by household means. There are strains that cause the formation of warts and condylomas, which have a high degree of oncogenicity. Often, this pathology begins with the appearance of papillomatosis proliferation. Penetrating into the epithelium, the virus changes the structure of human DNA, which can cause dysplasia with fission acceleration. The urgency of this problem lies in the fact that if the cancer of the vulva was detected in a young woman, then the virus of papilloma is detected with an 80% probability. Today, more than ninety percent of the world's population is infected with them.
Often, cancer of the vulva can be transmitted byinheritance. A hereditary predisposition is noted in thirty percent of cases. This is the so-called intraepithelial neoplasia. The gene that provokes it has not been identified to date. Psychosomatics explains that malignant tumors are formed as a result of mental experiences, which are often unconscious. And also they can arise because of lack of attention or love. Thus, according to some teachings, hatred with resentment, anger and envy of other people can cause oncological processes.
Stages of vulvar cancer
In the treatment of this disease, the prevalence of neoplasm plays a major role. The following stages are distinguished:
- Zero level of pathology is characterized by lesions of only the epithelium.
- In the first stage, the tumor size does not exceed two centimeters and does not go beyond the vulva itself.
- At the second stage, the size of the tumor is already starting to exceed two centimeters.
- The third stage is characterized by the germination of the tumor into adjacent tissues, for example, into the vaginal or anal area, among other things, the unilateral character of lymph node involvement is observed.
- In the fourth stage, the tumor can germinate into other organs, and in addition, the bones. In this case, lymph nodes that are affected by metastases from both sides can be noted.
At an early stage, provided that thethe survival rate of patients is ninety-eight percent. It should be noted that the neoplasm can spread throughout the body for several months. Often physicians detect distant metastases in the lungs. Unfortunately, the last stage is almost not subject to any treatment, in this case the physicians' strengths are only directed at alleviating the condition of the diseased patient.
How to identify the symptoms of vulvar cancer?
The collection of the anamnesis, as well as the questioning of the patient,The general dynamics of pathological processes is determined along with the course of the disease and the benign nature of education. In the event that there is a suspicion of cancer of the vulva, a survey that is conducted to clarify the diagnosis will include the following procedures:
- Conducting a gynecological examination, which reports on external changes.
- Exercising palpation with the definition of enlarged inguinal and, in addition, femoral lymph nodes.
- Performing a colposcopy in order to determine the germination of the neoplasm.
- Conduction of a vulvoscopy, which helps to check the modified cells for the presence of dysplasia.
- Performing the cytology of the smear along with conducting a PAP test or checking for the presence of cancer cells with a description of their structure.
- Biopsy and histological examination.
- Execution of ultrasound of the small pelvis, and in addition, lymph nodes, which allows to detect metastases.
When the cancer of the vulva begins to metastasize to neighboring areas, the diagnosis is in the following procedures:
- Conducting digital rectal check.
- X-ray photographs of the lungs.
- Performing urethroscopy.
- Conducting computer and magnetic resonance imaging, which, in turn, allows you to identify distant metastases.
Conclusion with the disease prognosis directlydepends on the totality of the symptomatology and the clinical trial data. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the duration of pathology along with the general health of the patient.
How is vulvar cancer treated?
Treatment of the disease
The disease is extremely dangerous, but curabledisease, however, provided it is detected at an early stage. In the event that the pathology is not treated, it will be fatal. It should be noted that death in case of neglect of such a disease can occur within a year.
The chance to survive, and in addition, to stop the activethe development of carcinoma exists in the event that a person does not start a disease, but seeks a doctor for appropriate medical assistance. In no case should you try to get rid of the disease yourself by taking pain medications, or to look for effective remedies in prescriptions that are offered by traditional medicine. In such a situation, only competent medical assistance of qualified specialists should be provided. Treatment of vulvar cancer should be comprehensive.
Cure and defeat pathology helpModern developments in such areas as gynecology, surgery and oncology. The tactic of the treatment is a combination therapy that will help slow the rate of cancer, allowing the body to recover and, in addition, to prolong life. So, the treatment includes the following aspects:
- Performing surgical removal of the focus and metastasis.
- Carrying out chemotherapy with the use of cytostatics.
- Radiation therapy.
- Taking measures for anesthesia.
The recovery of patients comes directlyafter surgery for cancer of the vulva, within which an organ with regional lymph nodes is removed. Sometimes it is only a matter of clinical remission. Relapses after operations are usually found in 7 percent of cases. The period of their appearance can not be foreseen, but sometimes doctors have to operate the patients repeatedly.
Launched, but at the same time inoperable cancer allequally requires the conduct of palliative care. Usually, radiotherapy is prescribed, and the actions taken by oncologists are directed to relieve the suffering of the sick person. Chemotherapy for vulvar cancer is also performed.
Treatment of this pathology, which includesirradiation with chemotherapy, can cause various side effects along with a deterioration in the quality of life of patients. For example, because of the removal of the genital organs, swelling of the feet with inflammation and divergence of postoperative sutures, as well as with the accumulation of fluid in the area of the affected area may occur.
Negative operational consequences maythere is also a nerve damage. Patients may experience numbness with tingling in the affected area of the skin. In addition, the seam may not heal well. In the framework of prevention, it is recommended to lubricate skin with a balm called "Vinilin". Also suitable is sea buckthorn oil. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy of vulvar cancer can cause various complications, which include the following manifestations:
- Reducing the body's immune forces.
- The development of anemia.
- Significant hair loss.
- The appearance of disorders in the work of the intestine.
- Observation of narrowing of the vagina.
- Appearance of a burning sensation during urination.
- The appearance of general weakness, irritability, apathy and feelings of anxiety.
All postoperative time of the patient needs special attention to themselves, and besides - in the care of the clinical staff and, of course, close people.
In advanced stages of vulvar cancer (photos can be easilyfind) sick people can experience severe physical discomfort. In this regard, the question of how to relieve pain is most relevant. At some point, the use of non-narcotic analgesics no longer brings relief. Patients strictly according to the prescription of the doctor are individually prescribed strong drugs, for example, such as "Buprenorphine" or "Morphine".
Painkillers can causea certain dependence with some side effects, such as confusion, dizziness, nausea, lowering of blood pressure, dry mouth and a strong thirst.
How does vulvar cancer look, not everyone knows.
How realistic is it to become pregnant after a pathology?
This issue is stillinsufficiently studied, since this disease is extremely rare in women who are at reproductive age. This pathology is more so-called "senile" disease.
Nevertheless, most health professionals believe thatIt is possible to plan pregnancy only after passing the full course of complex therapy, and, in addition, after the rehabilitation period is over. As such, the recovery period is quite long and ranges from three to five years. Before planning pregnancy, women should undergo a complete examination, first of all with a gynecologist, as well as an oncologist with a geneticist. This is required in order to discover hidden factors that can harm a child or provoke a relapse of pathology.
In rare cases, this pathology may bediagnosed during pregnancy. In such situations, you can not refuse to perform chemotherapy. This method of treatment does not have any negative impact on the subsequent development of the fetus.
How can this serious disease be prevented?and fight it? Prevention of cancer helps avoid exposure to harmful factors, protecting themselves from them. In order to prevent the appearance of vulvar cancer, doctors recommend that you exclude or at least reduce the effect of dangerous factors, and in addition, treat opportunistic pathologies on time. First of all, you need to quit smoking, get rid of excess weight, avoid getting into the body of all carcinogens. In addition, you should not tolerate a violation of the level of hormones and development of problems with blood vessels. We also give recommendations that help prevent cancer of the vulva:
- Providing the body with a full sleep.
- A healthy lifestyle and a normal regime of the day.
- Proper nutrition along with regular preventive examinations.
To treat this illness follows at its initial stage. So getting rid of it will be easier and much more effective. In this regard, every woman after fifty years must visit a gynecologist twice a year.
What is the prognosis for vulvar cancer?
Life expectancy and prognosis
Survival of operable patients who do nothave lesions of lymph nodes, usually up to ninety percent. In the event that the pathological process involved lymph nodes, the survival rate is reduced to fifty percent.
Reviews about cancer of the vulva
Most often reviews about the treatment of thispathologies leave the daughter of sick mothers who had to face cancer. Like any other cancer, this form is successfully treated only at the initial stage, immediately after the operation, as reported in the comments. After treatment, women can develop various complications in the form of anemia, hair loss, the appearance of a sense of weakness and rapid fatigue.
In our country, vulvar cancer suffers about fivepercent of women. In this regard, it is extremely important to regularly be examined by a gynecologist in order to avoid the development of such a dangerous pathology. In addition, do not neglect the right diet, a healthy lifestyle and the observance of normal sleep patterns. A woman must take care of her health not only in her youth, but throughout her life.
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