Human abilities and their development
People placed in the same socialconditions, in most cases achieve results that are different from each other. Explaining why this is happening, we often refer to the concept of "the ability of man." In psychology, this term has several interpretations. The most clear formulation was proposed by R. Nemov, referring to abilities as individual psychological features of a person that do not boil down to the knowledge and skills of the individual, but explain the quick and easy acquisition of them in any activity.
It should be noted that everything has a beginning.Human capabilities also have a similar "reference point", which is called makings. They are often not defined and are not directed at anything. Only the inclusion of them in the structure of activities can bring a certain result. By "makings" in psychology we understand the anatomical and physiological features that underlie future abilities. In this case, they can develop absolutely in any direction. The extent to which the abilities of a person relate depends on the direction of the person and the effectiveness of the activity. His individuality can be shown in mathematics, art, sports, fine arts, etc. If a person ceases to use any abilities, then they gradually fade away. To stimulate their manifestation and further development can only be a permanent occupation in the chosen field.
If we talk about the classifications of this issue,then there are quite a lot of them. So, they sing out general and special, practical and theoretical, creative and educational abilities, etc. It is worth dwelling in more detail on the characteristics of some of them.
So, general abilities are those properties thatand determine the success of the individual in a variety of activities. This includes a well-developed memory, the ability to quickly and clearly perform mental operations, good speech and more. Special abilities characterize the success of a person in a certain kind of activity. Here you can talk about mathematical, sports, technical, linguistic and other makings. General and special abilities very often exist together, complementing each other. In order to harmoniously develop them, you must constantly work on this.
It is necessary to distinguish in the structure of abilities andsuch a thing as giftedness. This is a qualitative combination of personal traits, as a result of which one can talk about the success of mastering knowledge and skills in a certain activity. A gifted, talented child (or adult) is a person who easily and quickly absorbs new information, processes it and produces a qualitatively new result in a certain area. It is people who possess these characteristics that advance progress in all sciences. After all, great discoveries are born. Hidden human capabilities are large enough. And it is advisable in early childhood to begin developing the makings and abilities, so that later the gifted personality grows. For this, usually, already in the kindergarten and at school, certain classes are conducted, the direction of the child is studied, its makings and the sphere of their direction are diagnosed.
There are also educational and creative abilitiesrights. In the first case, it is a success in teaching and upbringing, obtaining and mastering knowledge. On the contrary, creative abilities are aimed at creating new ideas, inventions, objects of culture and art. Success in any sphere is ensured only when the makings begin to develop already at an early age. At the same time it is desirable that the activity of the child be creative, the child should be motivated to take classes.
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