Characteristic features of the leaders were detailedstudied in the 20th century. Why can one person guide people and another person not? This issue is of concern to scientists now. In order to understand the problem in detail, many extensive studies have been carried out. Experts decided to identify the characteristic behavioral characteristics of leaders. However, the results were mixed.
This is quite natural, because the leaders significantlydiffer from each other both in character and in style of management. Then the researchers set a different goal. They decided to identify the styles of leadership, and their advantages and disadvantages. Let us consider in detail the results of the research.
There are two main types of leader -authoritarian and democratic. In the first case, the main feature of the head is that he presses on the lowest needs of people. That is, the leader does not believe in the possibility of interest in the work, and affects the subordinates with the help of money. In this case, the power is concentrated in the hands of one person. The leader demands complete obedience from the subordinates and the unconditional fulfillment of instructions.
Leadership styles also includethe opposite of an autocrat. A democratic leader influences people's higher needs. That is, he believes in natural curiosity and interest in work. A democratic leader motivates a person to receive self-realization, provides full amateur performance, supports the initiative of workers. In this case, the authority in the organization is decentralized.
Leadership styles are also divided into twoadditional categories. A benevolent authoritarian leader takes all the main power into his own hands and motivates employees through monetary incentives. However, in this case, the leader provides his subordinates with limited independence, and trusts them in making certain decisions.
There is also a consultative styleleadership. The leader takes on all the major strategic issues, and leaves his tactical tasks to his subordinates. The power in the organization, in this case, is partially decentralized.
Now you know all the basic styles of leadership. Each of them has its pros and cons. In some periods, for the organization there will be an ideally authoritarian leadership, and in some, democracy will be required.
Such an extensive theme as leadership and stylemanagement, will be incomplete without considering this issue in politics, because it is there that the main power is concentrated. Let's consider this issue in more detail. There are also four types of leader, but their distinctive characteristics are more extensive and complex than in the classification of managers of organizations. This is not surprising, because to lead the broad masses can not every person.
What are the styles of political leadership? Consider the most modern classification. Leader-bearer is a person who primarily motivates people. With him you want to identify yourself, because such a politician is endowed with the ability to attract and admire. It is an ideal from which millions take the example.
The leader-minister is the person who directsall their efforts for the social needs of citizens. Strives to help people with their practical activities, real affairs. He works on behalf of his constituents, strives to learn all their needs.
A leader-merchant is a politician who is able to competently communicate all his strategic plans and concepts to citizens. He convinces, attracts attention, has the gift of suggestion.
The leader-fireman is, first of all, a tactician, who is able to solve specific problems in perfection. He easily copes with the most "burning" problems and pressing issues.
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