Soil of the forest-steppe of Russia
The territory of Russia is quite extensive.This is the largest state in terms of space. His land stretches for almost eleven thousand kilometers from west to east. The climate and soils on the territory of the country are quite different. The climate is from severe arctic to subtropical. Soils, in turn, are from the cold snow arctic deserts in the north to arid semi-deserts in the south of the country.
Depending on the zoning and climatic conditions of the country, a soil cover is formed, differing in mechanical composition and fertility.
The territory of Russia is divided into the following natural zones:
- arctic deserts;
- broad-leaved and mixed forests;
The optimal zones for conducting agricultural activities are the regions of the forest-steppe, steppe and subtropics.
Forest-steppe zone is characterized by alternation of forest and steppe lands. On this territory there are sod-podzolic, marsh, gray forest, podzolized, solonetses and typical black soil soils.
Soils of the forest-steppe and their formation
Forest steppe is a natural zone locatedbetween forest and steppe zones of zoning. The forest-steppe region extends through the East European Plain and the West Siberian Plain, as well as through the territory of the Southern Urals. Some parts of the forest-steppe are located within the Middle Danubian plain.
Soil of the forest-steppe of Russia was formed in the processlong soil-forming cycle. The beginning of the formation of this zone is associated with the period of the end of the glacial period. In Eastern Europe and Western Siberia, the zone of the forest-steppe is fairly well formed and is divided into three regions from the east to the west: the Far East, the Siberian and the East Europe.
The properties of the forest-steppe soils are different in their composition and origin, this, in turn, determines the conduct of agricultural human activity and its specificity.
Forest-steppe is a strategic resource of Russia
The total land area of this zone is about150 million hectares, or about 7% of the total area of the state. Climatic conditions of a zonal character affect which soil in the forest-steppe prevails, depending on precipitation, temperatures and vegetation cover. Climatic conditions in the forest-steppe vary from north to south, are characterized by provincial differences, which determines how the soil of the forest-steppe of Russia can radically differ in mechanical composition and suitability. Types of soils are determined by the thickness of the humus horizon.
The largest area of suitable land isin the forest-steppe of Russia. Soils of this zone are plowed up to eighty percent. Due to high fertility and the presence of a large humus layer, most of the crops are grown here. For the main part of grain crops, the soil of the forest-steppe is favorable. Wheat, rye, corn, buckwheat are grown in this zone. Cultivation of technical crops: sunflower, beets, rape is quite developed.
Formation and types of soils in the forest-steppe zone of the country
Soils of the forest-steppe were formed in conditions of growth of forest tracts and meadows.
The soil cover of the forest-steppe zone was formed during the decay of plant remains of shrub and grass trees.
In the northern parts of the forest-steppe zone, the soilthe cover is defined mainly by gray forest lands, leached and podzolized chernozems. On gray forest soils intensive farming is conducted. 55% of areas are plowed, and on chernozems - about 40%.
On the bottoms of ravines, gullies, valleys and dells, with(1-2 meters), humus-gley soils and sod-gley soils are formed on the background of meadow and meadow-bush vegetation. Used as hayfields and pastures.
In plain areas, the area of medium- and heavily washed soils does not exceed 5%, while on the uplands it reaches 20% or more.
In the southern parts of the forest-steppe, agriculturalThe land is mainly located on leached and typical chernozems. About 87% of the total land area is cultivated. The main part of arable land is located on sloping slopes. Strong water erosion affects about thirty percent of arable land, in some areas it reaches 40-50%.
Decrease in soil fertility - the catastrophe of the future
A strong decrease in the fertility of chernozems contributes to a constant decrease in nutrients.
Soil of the forest-steppe of Russia for today in the processintensive farming has lost more than 30% of its fertility. This process is considered irreversible. The formation of one centimeter of the fertile layer under natural conditions takes about 125-400 years. The damage done by man is enormous. Subsequently, without observing the proper attitude to the strategic reserves of the country's lands, the ecosystem of nature will be disrupted. This will lead to the disappearance of fertile land in the next 40-50 years. Let's hope that the rationality and rationality of society will not allow such a catastrophe of a global order in the pursuit of a long ruble.
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