Reproduction of population
The number and reproduction of the population areone of the main indicators of the level of public life. These concepts reflect the degree of renewal of the generation of people. Reproduction of the population is considered to be a combination of three types of population movement: spatial, natural and social.
Considering such a process as renewalgenerations, it should be noted its great importance in the development of society. According to many authors, the reproduction of the population is a separate sphere in social reality. Being a relatively independent process, the renewal of generations is seriously affected by other aspects of social life. Together with this, the reproduction of the population has a marked effect on other aspects of life. As a result of this interaction, objective requirements are formed for all processes related to the life activity of the society.
Reproduction of the population is considered probabilisticphenomenon. It is formed by a mass of single and accidental incidents - deaths and births. The continued existence of the population provides for the preservation of the basic conditions under which interaction with the external environment is carried out. It is possible, according to experts, with a certain order, and not chaotic, demographic flow. This, in turn, is the result of management processes occurring in the demographic system. They (processes) are peculiar for natural conditions. Thanks to them, the continuity of the renewal of populations of animals and plants is achieved, as well as the relative stability of numbers.
After the emergence of human society inmanagement processes in the reproduction of populations there have been qualitative changes. From this point on, the biological mechanisms for regulating reproduction have been replaced by social ones. The formation of a stable public attitude to the preservation and production of human life has provoked the emergence of population reproduction as a socially determined process. Of course, this does not mean that specific demographic, biological objective limitations have disappeared, according to which the system of social regulation of the renewal of populations operates.
Quantitative measure of population reproductioncombines the indicator of the fertility regime reflected in the corresponding function f (x) and the mortality reflected in the survival function l (x). X in these functions is age. The generalized expression of these functions is the gross reproduction coefficient (R), as well as the average lifetime e0. In this case a certain simplification is possible, which is connected with the fact that the exponents f (x) and l (x) determine uniquely R and e0, and there is no inverse one-to-one correspondence.
In the mode of population reproduction, f (x) and l (x)are exogenous parameters. These indicators unambiguously form the endogenous parameters: C (x) (the age structure of the population) and the measure of the increase in the number - the net coefficient R0 and the true coefficient of natural increase r. These two indicators characterize some changes in the ratio with different time units. In the first case, the length of the generation T is used, and in the second case, the usual calendar time measures (usually a year). Thus, the ratio r = lnR0 / T is formed.
It should be pointed out that in Russia there are marked ethnic and regional differences in the reproduction of the population.
Reproduction of the population of Russia to the secondhalf of the 19th century was characterized by high birth and death rates. In the pre-war period, the birth rate began to decline intensively in the industrialized regions.
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