Natural movement of the population
The natural movement of the population is an indicator,which determines the change in the number of population as a result of processes such as fertility and mortality. It differs from mechanical movement (migration) in that it characterizes demographic indicators.
With mechanical motion, the number and structureChange under the influence of migratory flows of people who are rushing from one region to another for economic or social reasons. More often than not, people move from less developed countries to states that are more developed both socially and economically.
The term "natural movement of the population" for the first timeappeared in Germany in the XIX century. It is measured by the difference between the number of natural growth and the decline in population. These data are calculated taking into account age groups. The following factors influence fertility and mortality: socio-economic conditions; natural environment of residence; traditional living conditions.
Indicators of natural movement of the population are relative, and also absolute. Absolute is considered to be:
- number of persons born within the time interval;
- number of persons who died within the time interval;
- The natural increase (loss), which is the difference between the first and second.
Relative indicators of natural movementof the population are the death rate, fertility rate and natural increase, which are calculated by special formulas. With the correct calculation, you can get a clear picture of the state of the natural movement of the population. These indicators change with the development of society and determine its type.
Scientists distinguish three demographic transitions forthe whole history of mankind. In the primitive communal system, the ratio of people born and deceased was approximately the same, and the population growth was minimal. This type of population reproduction is called an archetype.
The natural movement of the population in the second(traditional) demographic type increases due to the high birth rate, which is significantly ahead of mortality. This period lasts until the development of capitalist society. And also captures the period of early capitalism. And finally, a modern, or rational, third type is a natural movement of the population, characterized by a low birth rate and low mortality. The longer life of people is connected with the development of health care and raising the standard of living.
It should be noted that changes occur indeveloped countries of Europe, where the natural increase reaches 0.1-0.7%, which leads to a demographic crisis. As a result, mortality in several European countries outpaces the birth rate, and this is reflected in the depopulation of the peoples of these states.
The natural movement of the population in countriesthe third world is still stable. Fertility outpaces mortality, despite the more difficult social and economic situation. Here, the increase is up to 4%, so the peoples of Latin America, as well as Africa and Asia occupy the bulk of the world's population. If Europeans do not seriously engage in raising the demographic level, then after a while they can completely disappear as a nation.
The natural movement of the population is thatwill give an opportunity to reconsider their views on many of the problems associated with the demographic crisis in Russia, where the population decline is due to reasons that can be handled. This total drunkenness, drug addiction, low living standards, as well as the reluctance to preserve for the descendants of their cultural and national traditions. With a wise policy, all these issues can be solved.
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