Functional styles of the Russian language
The ability to determine the style of the text - this is the first level of mastering the style, the initial stage of mastering the concept of style.
Style is a speech concept, but its correct.it is possible to determine only by going beyond the boundary of the language system, taking into account such circumstances as the tasks of speech, the scope of communication. Taking into account these factors, certain functional styles of the Russian language are being formed.
Each of us in his life uses differentfunctional types of speech. As a result, the principles of the selection of language means are formed in the minds of people in accordance with the conditions and tasks of communication; the leading style trends and internal attitudes to use certain units of language are formed.
Style stratification of speech begins withdelimitation of the most contrasting types. Such, without a doubt, are the colloquial type of speech, the core of which is the colloquial style and the opposing literary type of speech that unites all other functional styles of the Russian language (artistic, scientific, publicistic, official business). At the heart of this distinction are several factors, of which the main one is the sphere of communication. The sphere of individual consciousness forms the conversational style, and the sphere of social consciousness is the functional styles of the Russian literary language.
The differences between colloquial and literary speech inlargely determined by its form, oral or written. Although all functional styles of the Russian language can be realized in one form or another of speech, the likelihood of these implementations is different in different types. Written speech is more often used for all literary styles, and oral for spoken language. The usual form of communication leaves an imprint on the structure of the style. For a better understanding of the specifics a system of functional styles of the Russian language has been developed.
1. Colloquial - used in an informal one-on-one setting for the purpose of communication (to talk). The main features: vagueness, ease.
2. Scientific - used in the official setting, assumes a large audience. The purpose of speech - the message (explain). The main features: consistency, accuracy, abstraction.
3 Officially-business - used in a formal setting, implies a large audience. The purpose of speech - the message (instruct). Main features: passionlessness, accuracy, formality.
4. Publicistic - used in a formal setting, implies a large audience. The purpose of speech - the impact (to convince). The main features: emotionality, recruitment.
5. Artistic - used in a formal setting, implies a large audience. The purpose of speech - the impact (to portray). Main features: emotionality, imagery, consistency.
Some features of the communication situation arecommon to the official business, artistic, journalistic styles: these functional styles of the Russian language are used when addressing many people at once, usually in a formal setting and mostly in writing. Therefore, these four styles make up the literary (book) type of speech. He is opposed to the colloquial type (colloquial style), which is used in communicating with one or several familiar faces, in a relaxed, informal atmosphere and mostly verbally.
The system reveals the dependence of the type andfunctional style of speech from the characteristics of the speech situation, it helps to understand why the functional styles of the literary Russian language have certain features. On its basis, it is easy to make a description of the functional style of speech (model of style), including four main features: the scope of the utterance, the task of speech, language means, and style features.
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