What changed the tool for plowing, which came to replace the hoe?
For many centuries, cavemen have earned themselvessubsistence hunting and gathering, and only five thousand years ago to replace the appropriating economy (in which a person took everything necessary in ready form with mother nature), the producer came. A person has tamed a dog, learned to cultivate the land, using primitive tools of labor. Gradually the fishery developed, a new tool for plowing, which came to replace the hoe, allowed a person to move from hoe to slash-and-burn agriculture, increase yields and ease the hard work of the first plowmen.
The oldest hoes were twoA stick, one of which was tied in the bottom of the other criss-crosswise. Thus, man received the prototype of a modern instrument of labor. It was not easy to work with them, so gradually men began to farm (this is the reason for the transition from matriarchy to patriarchy). It took a lot of time to cultivate a piece of land, and the man understood: something must be changed.
Harrow-sukovatka, a tool for plowing, came onchange hoe - this is a common stick with a lot of knots. First, it was simply dragged along the ground, thus raising the lower layers of the soil. A little later, to the base of the stick began to tie something like ropes, with the help of which to pull the harrow was much easier. The type of farming has also changed: now people did not simply raise the lower layers of the soil upward, but specially prepared the parcels for processing. A relatively flat piece of land was selected in the forest, then it was cleared of trees. The fallen logs were burned, and soil was fertilized with ashes, only after that they started sowing crops. Usually from such an allotment received two or three crops, and then it was simply thrown, starting all over again on another site.
But on this man did not stop. New tools for plowing, which replaced the hoe and harrow-sukovatke, forced out the slash-and-burn method of farming.
In parallel, agriculture developed andanimal husbandry, so that the use of livestock in agricultural work was a matter of time. The horse, tamed by man, was originally only a means of transportation, and its use in plowing began much later. The next step in the development of agriculture was the next tool for plowing, which came to replace the hoe and harrow-sukovatke - a light wooden ralo. At first it was a stick, to which were attached two smaller sticks, which loosened the ground. One end of the rally was attached to the animal, another was followed by a tiller. Naturally, the use of livestock greatly simplified the plowing process, and a similar method of tillage improved crop yields.
Influence on society
Now it does not matter what tools for plowing, who came to replace the hoe, were used by man. It is important how they influenced the development of society. Initially, the human collective was dominated by matriarchy, the cult of a woman who was considered the foundation of everything on earth. But with the evolution of agriculture it became clear that the weak sex can not perform all the work, so gradually a transition to patriarchal relations took place. In the new society, the main role was played by a man. And until now, mankind retains these foundations, which by their existence are due to the transition from the hoe to the more complex types of farming.
The role of various adaptations in developmentagriculture can be argued for a very long time. But with certainty one can say one thing: the tool for plowing, which came to replace the hoe, could radically reverse the ideas about the producing economy and the human collective. So the sowing harrow and the wooden ralo are much more than just devices for digging the earth, they are steps in the development of society and civilization.
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