Reforms of the Elected Council of Ivan the Terrible
By the end of the 1540s, with the young ruler IvanIV formed a circle of personalities, to whom he trusted the conduct of affairs in the state. Later, the new government, Andrei Kurbsky called the "Elected Rada." The most famous of its members were Adashev Alexey Fedorovich, confessor Sylvester, Viskovaty Ivan Mikhailovich - head of the Posolsky order, and several other noble princes.
Reform of the Chosen One
The first steps towards reform were meetingsnobles and the governor. In 1549, the February meeting was held, which was the first Zemsky Sobor. The main political strategy of the Elected Rada was the centralization of the Russian state in the civilizational model of the West. The change of strategy required a series of reforms. Reforms of the Chosen One were glad to have an anti-boyar orientation. It relied on landowners, nobles, townspeople, and therefore, and expressed exclusively their interests.
The elected parliament, whose reforms fell on1549-1560. Realized the transformation in all spheres of society. The changes affected the administrative, ecclesiastical, legal, financial and taxation and other systems.
Reforms of the Chosen are pleased in the legal and administrative systems
By decision of the "Council of Reconciliation" of 1549a new set of laws was being prepared. The Corrected Code was established in 1550. Relations between feudal lords and peasants have not changed, the old norms and laws have been preserved. At the same time, the power of the feeders on the ground was somewhat limited, the process of forming orders was accelerated. Orders are the first functional governing bodies, in charge of separate areas of state affairs (otherwise they were called chambers, yards, etc.). The most famous were Chelobitny, Streletsky, Posolsky and other orders.
At the same time, centralizationlocal self-government. The deputy administrations were replaced by the elected administration. These and other innovations strengthened the position of the nobility in society, united the provincial nobility into service towns.
In the mid 50-ies of the XVI century, the "Codeabout the service ". A strict order of service was established. All landowners, regardless of the size of their possessions, became servicemen. The government of Alexei Adashev organized the archer's army and formed a detachment of streltsy for the protection of the tsar. According to the results of military reforms, tens of thousands of soldiers have armament, equipment and food.
Church Reforms of the Chosen One
In 1551, was adopted Stoglav, which waspublished one hundred chapters of articles on the answers of Ivan the Terrible about the structure of the church. Stoglav strengthened the general discipline in the church, regulated life. The king intended to confiscate the land from the church, but these were not approved by the elected Rada. The Church did everything in its power to strengthen its authority, which is steadily falling in the eyes of the people.
Reform of the Chosen One is pleased in the financial system
No administrative reforms could beimplemented without restructuring the tax system. In 1550, a census of the entire population was carried out. Household taxation was replaced by land taxation. On the central territory, a tax unit was introduced under the name "big plow", its value varied depending on the position of the landowners. Payment of taxes by the population became more centralized. "Kormlensky income" was replaced by a nation-wide "feeding".
In general, the reforms of the Chosen One are pleased under Ivan the Terriblewere ambiguous. They had a compromise character. Reforms contributed to strengthening power and improving the position of the nobility. Their implementation was interrupted due to the resignation of the Chosen Rada in 1560.
News and Society
News and Society
Arts & Entertainment
News and Society