Catherine II: Reforms - how it was

Catherine II came to power as a result ofunsuccessful rule of her husband Peter 3. He, due to his short-sightedness, ruled Russia for less than a year and fell victim to the palace coup. Catherine came in his place at times much smarter and cunning. As for its reforms, it was originally intended to give Russia completely new, progressive laws. However, her activities were limited to the nobility, who placed the empress in power. But nevertheless, some of the ideas of Catherine the Great found their reflection in her reforms.

Ekaterina 2 Reforms

So, Catherine 2 reform its inception withtransformation of the Senate. The fact is that it was from this side that the danger that undermined her power arose. Proceeding from this, December 15, 1763, a manifesto was issued on the transformation of the Senate. Since that moment, the senate has lost all legislative power. But at the same time, his judicial powers remained. Also remained his executive power.

With such a role, the Senate rose significantlythe importance of the prosecutor-general. Ekaterina appointed Vyazemsky, who was her confidant, to this post. At that time, Vyazemsky was famous for his honesty and incorruptibility. Thanks to this, he was entrusted with the management of the affairs of the treasury, finance, justice, control and supervision. In his submission were all the provincial prosecutors. But such a significant role was played only by the Prosecutor General. The Senate itself was divided into six parts. At the head of each stood his own chief procurator. The first department dealt with external and internal political affairs. However, this was only a legislative aspect - nothing more. The second was engaged in court cases in such aspect, as appeal. Under the jurisdiction of the third were the western outskirts of the empire, education and the police. The fourth was in charge of naval and military affairs. The Fifth Department together with the sixth were stationed in Moscow. One was engaged in court cases, the other was a senate office.

judicial reform of Catherine 2

It should be noted that the Empress Catherine II began to carry out the reforms precisely from the point where it followed - she curbed the only legislative body that could significantly interfere with her rule.

Next comes the judicial reform of Catherine II andprovincial reform. All this can be safely attributed to the continuation of the beginnings of Peter 1. To begin with, instead of three-part division of the empire into counties, provinces and gubernias, a two-term division was introduced - to the county and the province. This was necessary to significantly improve judicial, supervisory and financial activities. At the same time, there was an enlargement of the provinces.

First of all, Catherine IIto improve the economic and political situation in the country. She knew perfectly well that in any other variant, what could happen to her predecessor, Peter, could happen to her.

 Catherine the Great
However, due to its dependence on the nobilityshe could not afford to improve the situation of the peasants. And from that they eventually began to raise uprisings. The most famous of them is the Pugachev uprising, which, by the way, showed that Empress Catherine II did not carry out the reforms in the most proper way. First of all, it affected the province reform. After all, the country, divided into huge provinces, was very, very weakly controlled by the center. So, after the uprising, a number of measures were taken to address this problem.