The policy of protectionism is a statepatronage in the economic sphere. It manifests itself as a fence of the country's internal market from the appearance of foreign goods on it. The policy of protectionism also provides for the promotion of the export of competitive goods to foreign markets. The task of this form of state protection is to stimulate the development of the state economy, to protect it from foreign competition through non-tariff and tariff regulation.
The increasing global globalization causesthe need to work out an adequate policy of protectionism, thereby increasing the competitiveness of Russian goods in national and international markets. The manifestation of political activity of the state in certain spheres will enable domestic producers to quickly and most effectively adapt to the conditions of global economic development in the post-crisis period.
It should be noted that in various historicalperiods, the economic policy of the Russian state tended toward free trade, and towards protectionism. At the same time, there was no clear acceptance of any of the extreme forms. At the same time, an absolutely open economy, with unlimited turnover, the movement of technology, labor and capital across national borders, is not inherent in any state.
For many centuries, political and economiceconomists argue that it is better - a policy of protectionism, allowing the development of domestic production, or free trade, which makes it possible to compare the international and national costs of the industry directly.
The international economy of the 1950s-1960scharacterized by liberalization and adherence to freedom in foreign trade. With the advent of the 1970s, another trend is noted, in which protectionism is predominantly used. The states began to separate themselves from each other, using more and more sophisticated tariff, and in particular non-tariff barriers. Thus, the defense of its domestic market from foreign competition was carried out.
Protectionist policies can be aimed atpermanent protection of domestic strategic industries from foreign competition. This, in turn, ensures the country's invulnerability in the context of military operations.
The fencing of the internal market can be andtemporary. As a rule, this condition applies to newly created economic sectors. Interim measures can be lifted upon the achievement of production spheres of necessary competitiveness with similar spheres of other states.
The state can apply protectionist policies as a response to similar measures that protect the economy in other countries.
The state's economic measures to protect its domestic market can take several forms:
- sectoral form (protection of a separate industry is carried out);
- selective form (protection from a particular state or product is carried out);
- collective form (protection is exercised by several unified countries);
- the latent form (application in protection not customs ways).
It should be noted that the Russian economy todayhas a low competitiveness in comparison with the economies of other states. In this regard, it is likely that in a developing global economy the Russian state can take a place that weakly reflects its true potential, both scientific and technical and natural resource. Thus, it is likely that the country is becoming a mere supplier of resources for countries that are more developed industrially. However, the policy of protectionism in Russia can influence the development of this process.
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