Topsoil: characteristics

The earth contains liquid, solid and gaseousComponents. The top layer of soil consists of plant and living residues decomposed under the action of microorganisms. It is called humus and takes 10-20 centimeters. It is on it grow flowers, trees, vegetable crops.

topsoil
Underneath is an infertile soil layerin 10-50 centimeters. Nutrients from it wash away the acid and water, so it is called the leaching horizon (leaching). Here own elements are liberated due to chemical, biological, physical processes, clay minerals appear.

The parent breed is deeper. It also has useful elements. For example, calcium, silicon, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and others.

Let's look at the humus in more detail, since it plays a very important role in our life.

fertile soil
Humus: education, concept

Soil was formed during weathering of mountainrocks and consists of organic and inorganic components. In addition, it contains air and water. This is just a scheme, but in fact each layer develops separately in accordance with certain conditions. Our land only seems homogeneous, it is inhabited by worms, insects, bacteria.

The top layer of the soil is its cover.In the forests it is represented by organic remains and flying leaves, in open areas - grassy vegetation. The cover protects the earth from drying out, hail, cold. Under it, the remains of insects and animals are decomposed. In the process of this decomposition, the soil is enriched with mineral elements naturally.

Humus is inhabited by living organisms, permeatedroots of trees and plants, saturated with air. Its structure is loose, in the form of lumps. Here, the formation and accumulation of nutrients by the root systems occurs.

Any person knows that the top layer of the soil, andmore precisely, humus, is very important for fertility. The black substance contains carbon and nitrogen. This is a kind of cuisine, where food is prepared for planting (active humus). Also in this layer, a balance of nutrients, water and air regimes (stable humus) is created.

soil density
What affects the fertile soil layer

The top layer of soil is affected by processing technology, type, climate, crop rotation. In the garden, by applying organic additives and rotted compost, it is possible to significantly increase the stable humus.

The type of soil is important for gardening. It depends on the mineral composition. Vegetable plants grow well on neutral or weakly acidic lands.

There are also indicators of fertility:

  • Total acidity.
  • Actual acidity.
  • Cation exchange.
  • The need for liming.
  • Saturation with bases.
  • Grading.
  • Content of organic matter.
  • The content of macroelements.

The fertility is affected by the indicator "densitysoil ". High values ​​lead to deterioration of the air regime, difficulty in mobilizing nutrients, insufficient growth of roots. Low density retards the growth of the root system because of the voids and leads to increased evaporation of moisture.

Currently, there are fertilizers and additives, as well as various procedures to improve the quality of the fertile layer. But the earth needs to rest. Remember this!