Types of economic analysis
In modern economic theory and practiceeconomic analysis is classified for a variety of reasons. This classification allows for more specific and accurate approach to the selection of tools for the study of certain aspects of economic activity. Generalized types of economic analysis are determined by the tasks and content of the problems studied, which are determined by the subject of the study.
For example, industry analysisthe purpose of considering enterprises by the nature of the social division of labor. In this case, analytical work is based on taking into account the specifics of the branches of production and the provision of services, as well as on the aspects of their intersectoral interaction. The reason for the division is that the various segments of the economy contain institutions of economic activity that differ significantly, both in content and in form.
Spatial types of economic analysisare based on the understanding of important differences existing between subjects of economic activity: firms, enterprises, entrepreneurs. Therefore, intra-firm and inter-firm analysis is singled out in this group. If the first of them provides, first of all, the study of the activities of a particular enterprise, as well as the units that make up its structure, in the second case, the performance indicators of several subjects are examined and compared.
According to the time criterion, these kinds ofeconomic analysis, both preliminary and retrospective. When conducting a preliminary analysis, the state of affairs at the enterprise or the company is examined before the planned economic operations and procedures began to be practically implemented. During the historical (retrospective) analysis, the subject of research is already perfect economic actions, therefore this method is quite common where it is necessary to establish or study development trends or make scientifically based forecasts.
According to the content criterion distinguish such types of economic analysis as marketing, financial, technological and others.
The financial consists in researching everythingfinancial facilities of the enterprise, industry, a group of industries. Within its framework, an external analysis is provided-for example, by auditors, and internal, which is carried out by the company's own competent services. Both these types are aimed at researching, diagnosing and forecasting the state and prospects for the development of a financial mechanism or system.
Technical and economic analysis of activitiesthe enterprise is directed, as a rule, to study the parameters of the organizational and technological state and to find reserves for its development. His subject is, as a rule, dialectical patterns and causal relationships of technical and economic processes that take place within the enterprise, industry or the economy as a whole.
In order to study the influence of external conditions onthe nature of economic activity is organized by marketing analysis. Its content is to study the markets for raw materials and sales, the degree and likelihood of occurrence of commercial risks, price conjuncture, and the formation of the marketing strategy itself.
Analysis of cost-function parametersstudies the object in the conditions of its initial design as an object of economic relations. In his conduct are questions of optimization of industrial-commercial relations between enterprises and consumers. The main purpose of the FSA is to study and provide cheaper and more effective ways of obtaining the final marketable product.
In all types of research, a huge role is played byinformation support of economic analysis. It allows the most complete and accurate display of the economic state of an enterprise or firm, improve the quality of analytical activities.
The modern approach is most oriented in thisthe use of information technology. This issue is being solved in our time and begins with the processes of education in schools and universities, but continues directly at the specialist's workplace.
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