Types of policy
In the context of public spheres of life of any state, it is possible to identify certain types of policies. Among them are the following:
- economic policy, which implies relations among business entities within the economy;
- social - regulates relations between subjects (citizens, social groups) regarding their location in the society;
- national, regulating relations among nations and national groups;
- cultural, which is responsible for the relationship between subjects in the spiritual life;
- state-administrative, responsible for regulating relations among subjects of the political sphere.
There is also a somewhat different classification of policy - by levels of implementation:
- Local, with the help of which issues of local importance are regulated;
- Regional, responsible for the regulation of issues related to the development of the region;
- national, regulating the development of society as a whole;
- international and world - types of policies that operate in relations both at the level of state interaction and in addressing more global contemporary problems.
For a more complete characterization of this concept from the standpoint of state activity, it is necessary to consider such categories as domestic and foreign policy.
Thus, foreign policy is a statethe activity regulating international relations between subjects of the international arena (other states, world international organizations, and also foreign parties). Foreign policy should be based on the economic, demographic, military, scientific, technical and cultural potential of the state. It is this combination that should determine the priorities and goals of the state, which it seeks to achieve in the international arena. The instruments for implementing such a policy are:
- relations between states on a diplomatic basis;
- membership of the state in world international organizations;
- cooperation with friendly states.
Thanks to the stable relations with foreignpartners, the state can combine methods and means of foreign policy activities: exchange visits at various levels, carry out regular exchange of information, conclude treaties and agreements in the widest possible range of issues.
Domestic policy is represented by a combination ofsuch areas as economic, demographic, socio-integration, socio-cultural, etc. In other words, the direction of the state and its institutions to reform or preserve the social and political system. To achieve the main objectives of the policy, the state can use a wide range of instruments: tax levers, tax incentives, regulation of employment through the creation of additional jobs, implementation of activities in the field of sports and health.
Types of policy can not be characterizedcompletely without consideration of military policy, which should be aimed at the use and training of armed means to achieve national, class objectives, as well as to counteract the war.
To enhance the effectiveness of the implementation of the policy, its main functions are:
- Management, expressed in the political leadership of society;
- integrative, which ensures the consolidation of society and contributes to the achievement of stability;
- Regulatory, promoting regulation, streamlining of political relations;
- forecast, the main purpose of which is to develop a concept and direction for improving the society;
- normative - is related to the development and approval of a system of values in the state.
Only using all kinds of politics, the statecan objectively and really reflect the vital public interests, as well as with the use of adequately developed methods and means of implementation to achieve the basic goals set.
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