Classification of computers: the basic principles
Today, due to rapid progress,all areas of human activity, the scope of application of electronic computing are extremely diverse and continue to expand continuously. Nowadays no branch of national economy, scientific or technical discipline can do without modern computers.
Such a huge variety of areasuse and types of computing itself has generated a huge number of different signs, which is the classification of computers. In a clear, consistent systematization of electronic computers, there was an urgent need because of the too large variety of different parameters and the purpose of these technical means.
Such signs are considered the principle of action,specifications; destination; object installation equipment; operating conditions and service rules; applied system architecture and its structural base; various economic factors, etc. The likely influence of all the listed circumstances must be taken into account when designing, manufacturing and installing a computer system.
The most rational and expedient isgeneralized computer classification for a limited number of basic features, since such a principle of systematization allows us to identify the fundamental distinguishing features of various groups, types, categories and classes. This approach is considered the most practical and reasonable.
Depending on the principle of action classificationThe computer defines the following categories of computer systems: digital, analog-digital and analog types of computers. Digital computers process signals represented in the form of a binary digital code. The equipment of the analog principle of operation, respectively, works with analog signals. Well, the combined system combines both of these principles. Of course, the dominant hallmark of these systems is their component configuration.
The classification of the computer by purpose is the mostextensive. This includes specialized, managers, control, personal, training (various simulators), general purpose, and many others. Universal computer systems are focused primarily on the tasks of the widest range and orientation: mathematical, astronomical, engineering, economic, statistical, etc. Such a classification of computers implies the presence in this category of machines capable of performing a variety of tasks for any algorithms.
Distinctive computing characteristicGeneral-purpose technology is the architecture that allows you to connect the widest range of various peripheral devices, depending on the specifics of the task. Changing their number and technical parameters allows not only to instantly switch to completely different tasks and vary the principles of data processing, but also to ensure the maximum level of interaction between the system and the user.
Moreover, in this context it is extremely importantis the computer software classification. It is currently hundreds of thousands of various software products, sometimes designed to solve very specific problems. All software can be divided into the following main categories: basic software (which usually includes operating systems and software shells), translators, tools, and application programs.
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