To better understand what is accountingaccounting, it is necessary to get acquainted with the concept of financial accounting, which is the main part of accounting records. The translation of the word "accountant" from German literally means "the owner of the book". That is, a book containing a list of regularly filled documents that reflect the current state of the firm or organization in monetary terms. The second part of accounting is tax, which is based on financial accounting.
Accounting financial accounting is a collection,ordering and summarizing the registered information about the financial state of the organization or enterprise, the state of its property, the conduct of financial transactions and obligations to the tax, social authorities and private enterprises. All financial statements are filled continuously. Each document must be accompanied by documents confirming the transaction: checks, payment orders, receipts, etc.
History of accounting
Various historical sources indicate thatbookkeeping arose more than six thousand years ago, as a practical accounting of cash. Accountant, or accountant, since ancient times were the most respected professions. And no wonder. After all, without the correct organization of accounting, the successful operation of any organization or enterprise in every state is impossible with any device. Only competently put financial accounting allows you to correctly calculate and pay taxes.
Throughout history there has been a gradual development andformation of principles and rules for accounting for cash transactions. Many discoveries were made, various forms of accounting were used in trade and agriculture. In the period of the appearance of the first manufactories, accounting has developed most strongly. As a science, accounting financial records exist only the last hundred years.
Tasks of financial accounting
With the systematic maintenance of the accounting for the movement of financial resources, it is necessary:
- Collect and systematize only reliabledata, documented, on the financial performance of the organization or enterprise. Provide their leadership and founders; and also, at the request of the Directorate, creditors, partners, investors; in the form of reports to statistics, tax authorities, etc .;
- ensure the management of high-quality financial information for the correct compliance with Russian legislation in the implementation of various business transactions;
- monitor availability, depreciation and movementowned property of the company, as well as the competent use of material, monetary, labor resources, in accordance with the standards approved by Russian law;
- identify possible hiddenfinancial and economic potentials of the enterprise, as well as forecast financial transactions in order to prevent mistakes and negative consequences in the activities of the enterprise.
Financial accounting should now be conducted inmandatory for all enterprises and organizations that are located on the territory of Russia, adhering to a strictly regulated form and in accordance with the requirements of Russian law. Mandatory financial accounting also extends to foreign representations and branches from the moment of registration of foreign organizations as a legal entity for the entire period while their activities are in progress, prior to their reorganization or liquidation.
Financial Accounting and Auditing
Financial accounting and audit of funds haveclose connection. Auditing by the control bodies is conducted with a view to verifying the accuracy of the reported cash flow statement for the enterprise for a specific reporting period. Also, the compliance of the accounting form with the current Russian regulations is checked.
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