Classification of Accounting Accounts

The activity of any accountant, no matter whatthe company or organization it works, is necessarily associated with accounts All transactions in accounting are made out with their help. To simply explain to a person who an accountant is, it is often said that this is an accountant. And now let's look at this word carefully: the bookkeeper is the one who manages the accounts. It follows that the essence of the work of an accountant is to service one or another account. There are also a lot of accounts in accounting, as well as types of activity in the economy. Do not get lost in this huge variety helps classification of accounts.

What is her help? Accounts are divided into groups in order to create a system on which it would be easier for an accountant to work. However, this work is quite capacious, complex and ambiguous. So, if we consider accounting as a science, we have to classify accounts using scientific methods. If you have ever studied accounting, then you probably know that there are balance, inventory, financial, budget, economic, property, production, synthetic, analytical and other groups of accounts. However, this classification of accounting accounts is rarely used in life.

A practicing accountant usually prefers to use a list of accounts developed by the state in their activities. Classification of accounts according to this type divides accounts depending on the areaactivities that they serve. As an example, you can bring phrases familiar to everyone, which are at the same time the names of accounts: “Cash Desk”, “Profit”, “Financial result”.

And yet the most famous system of accounts (classicaccounting) divides them into three groups. Each group combines accounts that are filled in according to the uniform rules for deriving the total amount. If the total is debit - these are active accounts, if credit - passive, if floating - active-passive. Such a division is associated with the balance sheet - the main document that every accountant must bring each year. Asset and Liability - two columns of this document (hence the name of the accounts). The asset accounts for the property, and Liabilities - the sources of this property. It is not difficult to work with active accounts, but passive accounts sometimes cause some difficulties. To avoid them, it is important to remember that all operations with a passive account are mirrored compared to the active one. So, if the increase in the active account is displayed in debit, then in the passive account it is credited. Therefore, the balance (total amount) for the passive account should always be in the right side of the account (credit).

It is even easier to get confused by fillingactive-passive accounts of accounting. These are especially dynamic accounts, since their balance can be not only in a liability or in an asset. It can periodically change or be in a liability and an asset at the same time.

Classification accounts for accountingThe balance type is described in detail by example. Suppose you decide to buy a new refrigerator. How to write this down? (The names of the accounts we take from life.) Your cash that you pay to the seller is the expense on the active account “Wallet” and at the same time the arrival on the passive account “Household Appliances”. You have spent the money, you have less, but your property has increased. However, if you took out a loan for the purchase of a refrigerator, then your active-passive “Credit card” account will have a debt in the amount you paid in the store. And if you lent money to your neighbor last month to buy a phone and he hasn’t returned it to you yet, at the moment your active-passive Credit card account has a balance both in debit (you owe the bank) and in credit ( you owe a neighbor). If after buying a refrigerator you were able to live for the rest of the month for the rest of your salary and at the same time also deferred, then at the end of the month your active-passive Savings account will have a credit balance (profit), and if you didn’t have enough money and you had to get deferred funds and spend them on food, then the same “Savings” account at the end of the month will have a debit balance (loss). This situation may change next month.