Fertility is .. The fertility of the earth. Fertility factors
The main property of land soils as natural elements is their fertility. From this quality depends the vitality of all living beings of the planet, plants and, of course, people.
Soil as the main component of natureuses all its resources (solar energy, nutrients), generates them into so-called useful substances and supplies them with plants, which in turn are consumed by both animals and humanity. The biophysico-chemical processes occurring in soil cover are not simple, and its fertility depends on the content of constituents in the soil (falling into it and formed in it).
What characterizes the fertility of the soil?
From the foregoing, and concludes that the landfertility is the ability of soils of various kinds to provide growth and reproduction of all kinds of plants with favorable conditions, which are not limited to a balanced combination of moisture and heat.
Ancient symbols of the fertility of the earth
Symbol of fertility of the ancient Slavs was a rhombus, divided schematically into four parts, in each segment of the figure depicted points. The rhombus meant the cultivated fields, and the points - the cultures growing on them.
The symbol of fertility was applied to toolsagricultural labor, the walls of the house and brought, according to the belief of the ancient inhabitants, prosperity and grace. The depicted diamond in some measure became the founder of the division of agricultural land into separate plots, and then the fields.
In modern times, the symbol of the fertility of the earth is a spikelet or a sown wheat field.
Classification of fertility
Fertility is not only a natural property of the land, but also an indicator of the quality of the soil, which is the most important criterion in agricultural production.
From the agrotechnical point of view, the following types of land fertility are distinguished:
- natural (natural);
- artificial (effective);
These concepts are guided by manymodern agronomists who perform an analysis of the state of fertility and, depending on the indicator obtained, apply this or that technology of cultivation of soil coverings of agricultural lands.
Characteristics of fertility species
Natural fertility is an indicator of qualitysoil, which it possesses without various interferences of human, labor and mechanical resources, as well as chemical and mineral constituents. In modern times, this indicator is high only in those areas where modern technological processes of cultivation of lands are not being applied. The percentage of those for today is very low.
Effective fertility is the qualities thatthere is a land as a result of direct impact on it of purposeful human labor and enterprise, which includes all agrotechnical processes using a mechanized resource, reclamation and, of course, the use of fertilizers - organic and mineral, as well as pest control agents. Effective fertility is created in order to achieve high yields, realize them and obtain high profits.
Economic fertility is an indicator of the economic valuation of lands, the basis of which is its potential ability to bear fruit and economic properties of certain areas.
The potential capacity of lands is understood as a combination of their natural properties and the man acquired as a result of cultivation of land.
Natural fertility is the mostdemanded in modern times due to depletion of many land grounds due to excessive mechanized processes. Many modern landowners are trying to gradually move to the natural restoration of soil quality without the use of agrotechnical and agrochemical measures.
Characteristics of relative soil fertility
The above mentioned types of fertility canto be reduced to one more definition - to the relative fertility, by which is meant the ability of the ground soil to feed some species of plants and to reject others. And no compliance with crop rotation does not give any positive results on such soils.
In all natural processes, soil soils andThe vegetation types are very closely related and cause the positive properties of each other. After all, the growth of plants, their yield and natural strength are due to the fertility of soils, and it, in turn, depends on the type of vegetation growing on the soil cover.
If the vegetative background of land changes, thentheir fertility changes. If you evaluate all the earths of the globe, you can see that the desert areas are much smaller than those that are filled with their characteristic vegetation. Thus, wetlands are filled with moisture-loving vegetation, forest plantings are suitable for acidic podzolic soils or solonchaks. From this it follows that all types of soils have their natural fertility limit, but not in the evaluation of the total index, but with respect to certain plant species.
Hence the conclusion follows that different parts of the soil cover have different fertility of the earth with respect to potentiality and efficiency in relation to many plant species.
Since there is a clear understanding thatcertain soils have the potential for favorable cultivation of certain crops, then the most profitable land is used for agricultural needs. In general, these are fertile chernozems.
Elements of land fertility
Soil fertility is formed in the process of itsnatural structuring and is not determined solely by the singularity, for example, the content of nutrients or humus, but covers all its characteristic characteristics. The fertility of individual plots is determined not only by the state of the upper layers of the soil, but also depends on the deep structure that affects vegetation with a deep root system.
Thus, fertility depends entirely onprofile of the land plot, from its upper and lowland structures, from the availability of groundwater, from the quality of subsoil layers - clay or rocky. Elements of the land fertility index include the physical, biological and chemical properties of the soil and their annual dynamics - the granulometric composition of the land profile, the structure of the soil layers, the water-physical properties, the biological components, the ability to absorb heat and moisture.
Classification of agricultural land depending on the fertility rate
Land is the main means of production in theagriculture, the fertility of which is always the main theme of the day. It is soil fertility that predetermines future crop rotation. From the quality of the soil, the planned final result on harvesting always depends.
Agricultural land - agricultural land, which include hayfields and pastures, deposits, perennial plantations and arable land.
Hayfields are areas used for haymakingin order to provide livestock herbal food in the winter growing. Depending on their fertility, they are classified into flooded areas - the richest in succulent vegetation, dry-bottomed, swamped, hard-to-reach, filled with shrubs or forests in the districts, clogged with stones and hummocks, artificially improved clean.
Pastures are land that isare intended for grazing cattle in spring, summer, autumn growing periods. Vegetation in pastures is more scarce than in hayfields, due to the influence of the factor of the numerous trampling by cattle of many species of plants. They, in turn, are subdivided into dry and wetlands, cultivated improved.
To perennial plantations are fruit orchards and berry orchards, vineyards. Zalezhi is unused for sowing more than a year of arable land.
And the most valuable type of agricultural landis a plowland, which is used for seeding cereals, corn, sunflower, rape, buckwheat and planting of vegetable crops. Depending on the indicator of natural fertility, arable land is classified into irrigated, drained, not sufficiently moistened, prone to erosion and clogged with stones.
Estimation of land fertility
Depending on the purpose of agricultural land, an assessment is made of their potential properties to reproduce a certain number of crops of certain crops.
Agricultural land incombination with the natural plant balance can be characterized by an indicator of a high level of fertility and its low value. Fertility is determined by the specific gravity of the biomass accumulating in the soil cover due to the growth of either one or other crops on the land.
The main indicator of fertility inagricultural production is the yield of arable soils. The state land cadastre, dividing the land by the quality of fertility, focuses on the magnitude of the potential yield indicator, which can not be stable if the soil is used for other purposes or does not adhere to a certain crop rotation that does not deplete soil fertility, but, on the contrary, increases the potential capacity high yields.
Soil fatigue of agricultural land
Very many land experts adhere tothe opinion that the fertility of the earth is increasing due to modern scientific and technical methods of its cultivation. However, many years of practice shows the opposite result, which characterizes its decline. Not always the recultivation of the land cover leads to the preservation of the natural balance of the structure of the soil cover.
Each crop grown on a particularthe land area changes the natural biochemical composition of the soil and selects a lot of nutrients from it. This requires additional measures to restore fertility. Evaporation of moisture, soil erosion, low content of humus and nutrients is the result of unprofessional cultivation of land.
If in the early years of the cultivation of landthe soil resource is characterized by high fertility, then after several years of its operation with the help of mechanized processing it leads to a significant decrease in this indicator due to the depletion of the land upper layers, which is why various agrotechnical measures are taken to restore the natural balance by artificial methods. If, however, no action is taken, the land loses its ability to produce high yields and this process is called soil fatigue.
From the foregoing it follows that the fertility of cultivated lands is influenced by certain factors, reflecting the interrelationship of soil, microorganisms and plants.
These include the indicator of acidity, clay content, salt and alkali content, heat, water content, surface slope, chemical and biological soil toxicosis, lack of aeration.
Liquidation and minimization of influencing factors on the reduction of land fertility
Improving soil fertility is reduced to agrotechnical measures that restore the natural balance of land and minimize the influence of the above factors:
- with excessive acidity, liming of the soil is performed;
- with excessive alkali content - acidification, gypsum, physiological acid fertilizers;
- with an excess of salts - flushing groundwater;
- with high clay content - deep loosening, sand application;
- at high density of soil cover - loosening, grass sowing and structuring of soil composition;
- with a lack of nutrients - the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers;
- in chemical and biological toxicosis, fallowing and agrotechnological reclamation.
Seasonal soil fertilizer
Often, increasing the fertility of the soil plowing is carried out with the help of mineral fertilizers. These elements are the source of nutrient chemicals missing for plants.
Soil fertilization in the spring involves makingnitrogen and phosphate fertilizers. In the autumn, soils are enriched with nutrients with the help of organic types of fertilizers - manure, humus, plant slurry.
Improving the fertility of agricultural land
The increase in land fertility is not only affectedfertilizing the soil in spring and autumn, but also the correct observance of the proportions of fertilizer applied, since the lack and excess of it is characterized by a decrease in the rate of land productivity.
Soil fertilizer is always combined with crop rotation indicators, mechanized treatments and land reclamation measures.
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