Features of irrigation farming
Irrigation is called such agriculture, withwhich crops in the development process are periodically watered using irrigation structures. The most popular such system of growing agricultural plants is in arid regions, that is, where there is little natural precipitation. At present, this type of agriculture has been most widely spread in the south of Europe, in the countries of Asia and in northern regions of Africa.
Methods of watering plants in the Ancient World
The method of irrigation farming is one of thethe oldest in growing crops. According to archaeologists, it originated at the boundary of the Mesolithic and Neolithic in the arid arid valleys of Asia and Mesoamerica. Initially, watering of plants was carried out only through the flooding of flood floods in rivers. However, already in 6 thousand BC. e. First primitive hydrotechnical systems began to be used in Mesopotamia.
Channels of Ancient Egypt
The technology of irrigation farming -which to a large extent had an impact on the formation of the great ancient civilizations. For example, it was in this way grown crops in ancient Egypt. Initially, the inhabitants of this country built special dams with holes to divert water to the fields. More complex hydraulic engineering systems they began to use already in the era of the Middle Kingdom in connection with a significant increase in the area of irrigated land.
Irrigation agriculture in Ancient Egypt in thistime has become a basin character. Under the flood water the peasants excavated large pit-receivers. From these channels and shafts were used to irrigate fields. Such a system of irrigation existed in Egypt until the 19th century, until the Aswan Dam was built.
Irrigated agriculture in Russia
In our country, the irrigation system is usedin such arid regions as Transvolga, Central Asia, Transbaikalia, Western Siberia, etc. One of the unconditional advantages of this form of farming is the possibility of obtaining good sustainable yields (in some cases 2-3 per year). Similarly, corn, cabbage, tomatoes, cotton, rice, sunflower and many other crops are grown in Russia.
Quantity of consumed water
The greatest effect when applying this methodland use, can be achieved, of course, provided that irrigation will be conducted on a strictly scientific basis. Different cultures need a different amount of water for rapid development. So, for example, corn needs 100 liters per season, and cabbage - more than 200 liters. Therefore, when drafting irrigation systems, a large number of different calculations should be made. Developers should take into account not only the amount of water consumed by the plants, but also the average annual precipitation level, as well as other important factors (soil composition and density, duration of the warm season, etc.).
Timing of irrigation
In addition to the amount of water consumed, withdrawing up the project of irrigation of the earths in this or that locality it is also necessary to determine the terms of carrying out operations on soil moistening. It is very important, for example, to produce watering during flowering and plant budding. And for this you need to know the biological characteristics of cultures.
Further development of irrigation farmingoccurs also in our time. For example, to determine the degree of drying of the soil and the need for its moistening, the method of sampling by means of a small drill was used before. Now special devices are used for this purpose. This allows you to get more accurate results, save time and use technical means more rationally.
Irrigation system: irrigation methods
There are several basic methods of soil moistening under cultivated plants in dry regions:
by launching water along the furrows between the rows;
perforated pipes laid in soil;
method of sprinkling.
Water can be supplied to the fields from the nearestreservoirs through large and small channels. When growing a crop such as rice, another very effective technology is often used - flooding of fields. On crops of this culture water can stand a thick layer (15 cm) throughout the season. In order that it does not fade, it is changed from time to time. Water is drained immediately before harvesting rice.
The main varieties
Forms of irrigation farming in factthere are many. In the lowlands most often used large flood systems. In the mountains can be used terraced. In the valleys, irrigation farming is often combined with methods of rainfed crops of spring crops on spring-winter precipitation. On very steep mountain slopes, unusual irrigation systems of a very complex configuration can be used. Primitive forms of irrigation land use in spring and temporary rain water have survived only in some parts of Asia and North Africa.
What else does success in irrigation farming depend on?
Thus, to grow a good cropagricultural crops, it is possible, correctly drawing up a land reclamation project. Another important condition for the success of irrigation farming is the periodic application of fertilizers to the soil. After all, irrigation is why plants need to be able to suck the nutrients they need from the ground. Fertilizers in the soil using the method of irrigated agriculture can be applied both mineral and organic.
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