The reason for poor yields is acid soil. What to do for the fertility of the earth?

Sour soil. What to do
An important indicator of soil fertility is itsacidity. Quantitatively, it is expressed in terms of the pH-hydrogen index (the measure of the activity of hydrogen ions). Soil with acidity in the range of pH from 6.1 to 7.0 is neutral, it is more favorable for a lot of plants, because in such conditions useful mineral substances are available for them. Good conditions for plants create a soil in which the acidity is close to neutral (pH values ​​less than 6, but greater than 5.5). On alkaline earths (pH more than 7.1), the possibility of feeding plants with elements such as iron, potassium, copper, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, boron is greatly reduced. In an alkaline environment, molybdenum enters the plants in excessive amounts, and this depresses their development. Both alkalinity and acidity negatively affect the quality of the soil. It deteriorates filtration and air permeability. Acid become soils with pH less than 5.5. If the pH is 5.5, but greater than 5.1, the soils are slightly acidic; srednokislotny will be the soil at pH in the range of 5.0 - 4.6; strongly acidic - at pH 4.5 - 4.1, and very strong acid - pH less than 4.0. The development of the root system and the plant as a whole slows down, the yield reduces the acid soil. What to do, because the acidic environment is harmful to useful soil microorganisms, earthworms. On the rhizomes of legumes in acidic soil does not accumulate soil nitrogen. The structure of acidic soil is disrupted. Sharply prevents access to plants of soil microelements: phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium - but at the same time increases the intake of radionuclides, aluminum ions, manganese, iron, heavy metals, acid soil in them.

Weed on acid soils
What to do to determine the acidity of the soil layer?

The acidity of the soil can be determinedindependently, without resorting to the service of the agrochemical laboratory. To determine the pH of the soil, use a set of litmus paper. There is a simple experience. In the milk baby bottle with divisions fill up the sieved soil to the level of the second strip, pour the water up to the fifth division and pour 1/2 teaspoon of chalk powder. And immediately pull on the neck of the rubber nipple, pre-tightly rolled it. Wrap the bottle with a newspaper and shake for five minutes. From the reaction of chalk with the acids of the soil, carbon dioxide will be released, creating a pressure. If the acidity of the soil is weak, then the twisted nipple will straighten slightly, and with strong acidity it will inflate. There are also visual methods that are less accurate. Weeds on acid soils tell about the level of its acidity. Slightly acidic soils are suggested by such indicator plants as creeper grass, dandelion, white clover, birdwort, quark, chamomile, chamomile creeper. On srednekislyh grow violet tricolor, clover grazed, plantain, wild sorrel, wild mint. Strongly acidic soils are covered with horsetail, cotton grass, cat's foot, sorrel small. If in spring the land lot does not dry out, and then dries very quickly and becomes covered with crust, this indicates that there is acid soil.

Fertilizers for acid soils
What to do to neutralize the soil

Reduces the acidity of the soil liming. For this, lime-puschka is suitable, which is introduced in spring and autumn before plowing. You can replace lime with ground chalk, wood ash, marl. Before liming, find out in the reference books about the permissible and sufficient doses of introducing a substance, so that in the process of liming from acidic soils they do not turn into alkaline soils. It should be noted that liming is not carried out:

- simultaneously with the introduction of manure (lime will destroy nitrogen in it);

- simultaneously with phosphorite flour (phosphorus will pass into insoluble);

- before planting carrots, tomatoes, pumpkins, cucumbers, beans, celery, parsley, potatoes (strong scab on tubers).

The introduction of mineral fertilizers is necessary forfertility of crops and where there is acid soil. What should I do to increase the yield? We shall name the most effective and permissible fertilizers for acidic soil. Of nitrogenous it is nitrate: sodium and calcium. Do not use ammonium nitrate and urea - they acidify the soil. Of phosphoric, use precipitate. Of the potash - potassium sulphate, wood ash (it should be stored in a dry room).